There 2 ways of backing up data from an iOS device, either iCloud or iTunes.
Keep in mind when you are backing up an iOS device, you are NOT creating an exact copy of the device, but only some of your data. Apps are not copied, but available in the App Store. Most user data are stored in iCloud or other cloud solutions and copied to the device. Some data are stored in iTunes and copied to the device.
Read more: Apple Support - About backups for iOS devices.
Difference between iCloud and iTunes backup
The table below describes what is backed up and where.
With a Wi-Fi network connection, you can make a backup of your device using iCloud. You don’t need to plug your device into a computer or even be at home to back up with iCloud.
iCloud backups include nearly all data and settings stored on your device. iCloud backups don't include:
* When you use Messages in iCloud or Voice Memos or turn on iCloud Photos, your content is automatically stored in iCloud.
From your Mac or PC, you can make a backup of your device in iTunes. Syncing your device with your computer isn't the same as making a backup. An iTunes backup includes nearly all of your device's data and settings. An iTunes backup doesn't include:
Backup of Supervised Device
Restore backup on Supervised Device
If you restore the same back up to a different iPhone or iPad, the supervision state will come from Apple Business Manager and you can enroll it.
If the iPad was not supervised during the backup, it will not be supervised after a restore even though you have configured it to be supervised. In that case, the unit will have to be enrollment as a new device.